#125483840Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:03 AM GMT

cheese may be cold but i am sure he would not do it my money is on base
#125484003Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:05 AM GMT

Base is gone. Cheesey would do something like this he has been trying to get me gone for over a year. "its only a game, Get laid or something"-Donny I love my sister mb1 she is soo cute!
#125484192Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:07 AM GMT

base is never gone lol
#125484821Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:13 AM GMT

#125485038Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:16 AM GMT

This is the most hypocritical thread I've ever seen.
#125485150Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:17 AM GMT

base was JUST here The Emile Heskey of RMLS
#125485361Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:19 AM GMT

Peace is an occurrence of harmony characterized by the lack of violence, conflict behaviors and the freedom from fear of violence. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility and retribution, peace also suggests sincere attempts at reconciliation, the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality, and a working political order that serves the true interests of all. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Religious beliefs and peace 2.1 Inner peace 2.2 Satyagraha 3 Justice and injustice 4 Movements and activism 4.1 Pacifism 4.2 Organizations 4.2.1 United Nations 4.2.2 Nobel Peace Prize 4.2.3 Rhodes Scholarships and other fellowships 4.2.4 International Peace Belt 4.2.5 Gandhi Peace Prize 4.2.6 Paul Bartlett Ré Peace Prize 4.2.7 Student Peace Prize 4.2.8 Other 5 Monuments 6 Theories 6.1 Game theory 6.2 Democratic peace theory 6.3 Theory of 'active peace' 6.4 Many peaces 6.5 Trans-rational peaces 7 Peace and conflict studies 8 Measuring and ranking peace 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links Etymology[edit] The term 'peace' originates most recently from the Anglo-French pes, and the Old French pais, meaning "peace, reconciliation, silence, agreement" (11th century).[1] Pes itself comes from the Latin pax, meaning "compact, agreement, treaty of peace, tranquility, absence of hostility." The English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the Hebrew shalom. Such a translation is, however, imprecise, as shalom, which is also cognate with the Arabic salaam, has multiple other meanings in addition to peace, including justice, good health, safety, well-being, prosperity, equity, security, good fortune, and friendliness.[citation needed] At a personal level, peaceful behaviors are kind, considerate, respectful, just, and tolerant of others' beliefs and behaviors — tending to manifest goodwill. This latter understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual's introspective sense or concept of her/himself, as in being "at peace" in one's own mind, as found in European references from c.1200. The early English term is also used in the sense of "quiet", reflecting calm, serene, and meditative approaches to family or group relationships that avoid quarreling and seek tranquility — an absence of disturbance or agitation. In many languages the word for peace is also used as a greeting or a farewell, for example the Hawaiian word aloha, as well as the Arabic word salaam. In English the word peace is occasionally used as a farewell, especially for the dead, as in the phrase rest in peace. Religious beliefs and peace [edit] Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. Religious beliefs often seek to identify and address the basic problems of human life, including the conflicts between, among, and within persons and societies. Many Christians call Jesus of Nazareth the "Prince of Peace", and see him as a messiah (savior or deliverer), the "Christ", who manifested as the Son of God on Earth to establish God's Kingdom of Peace, wherein persons, societies, and all of Creation are to be healed of evil. Buddhists believe that peace can be attained once all suffering ends. They regard all suffering as stemming from cravings (in the extreme, greed), aversions (fears), or delusions. To eliminate such suffering and achieve personal peace, followers in the path of the Buddha adhere to a set of teachings called the Four Noble Truths — a central tenet in Buddhist philosophy. Islam means submission. The title "Muslim"—etymologically directly related to salaam and the name Islam—means a person who submits to Allah in salaam. The submission to Allah (the Arabic proper noun for "The God", One and Only) is based on humility. An attitude of humility within one's own self cannot be accomplished without total rejection of violence, and a personal attitude and alignment toward peace. See also: Catholic peace traditions and Peace in Islamic philosophy Inner peace[edit] Main article: Inner peace Inner peace (or peace of mind) refers to a state of being mentally and spiritually at peace, with enough knowledge and understanding to keep oneself strong in the face of discord or stress. Being "at peace" is considered by many to be healthy homeostasis and the opposite of being stressed or anxious. Peace of mind is generally associated with bliss and happiness. Peace of mind, serenity, and calmness are descriptions of a disposition free from the effects of stress. In some cultures, inner peace is considered a state of consciousness or enlightenment that may be cultivated by various forms of training, such as prayer, meditation, t'ai chi ch'uan (太极拳, tàijíquán) or yoga, for example. Many spiritual practices refer to this peace as an experience of knowing oneself. Finding inner peace is often associated with traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism as well as the New Age movement. Inner peace is also the first of four concepts to living life in the rave culture acronym PLUR. Satyagraha[edit] Main article: Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as "Mahatma" Gandhi). He deployed satyagraha techniques in campaigns for Indian independence and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa. The word satyagraha itself was coined through a public contest that Gandhi sponsored through the newspaper he published in South Africa, 'Indian Opinion', when he realized that neither the common, contemporary Hindu language nor the English language contained a word which fully expressed his own meanings and intentions when he talked about his nonviolent approaches to conflict. According to Gandhi's autobiography, the contest winner was Maganlal Gandhi (presumably no relation), who submitted the entry 'sadagraha', which Gandhi then modified to 'satyagraha'. Etymologically, this Hindic word means 'truth-firmness', and is commonly translated as 'steadfastness in the truth' or 'truth-force'. Satyagraha theory also influenced Martin Luther King, Jr. during the campaigns he led during the civil rights movement in the United States. The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable. Therefore, it is contradictory to try to use violence to obtain peace. As Gandhi wrote: "They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end..."[2] A contemporary quote sometimes attributed to Gandhi, but also to A. J. Muste, sums it up: 'There is no way to peace; peace is the way.' Justice and injustice[edit] Since classical times, it has been noted that peace has sometimes been achieved by the victor over the vanquished by the imposition of ruthless measures. In his book Agricola the Roman historian Tacitus includes eloquent and vicious polemics against the rapacity and greed of Rome. One, that Tacitus says is by the Caledonian chieftain Calgacus, ends Auferre trucidare rapere falsis nominibus imperium, atque ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant. (To ravage, to slaughter, to usurp under false titles, they call empire; and where they make a desert, they call it peace. — Oxford Revised Translation). More recently, advocates for radical reform in justice systems have called for a public policy adoption of non-punitive, non-violent Restorative Justice methods, and many of those studying the success of these methods, including a United Nations working group on Restorative Justice, have attempted to re-define justice in terms related to peace. From the late 2000s on, a Theory of Active Peace has been proposed which conceptually integrates justice into a larger peace theory. Movements and activism[edit] Pacifism[edit] Main article: Pacifism Pacifism is the categorical opposition to any forms of war or violence as means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views ranging from the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved; to calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war; to opposition to any organization of society through governmental force (anarchist or libertarian pacifism); to rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals; to opposition to violence under any circumstance, including defense of self and others. Pacifism may be based on moral principles (a deontological view) or pragmatism (a consequentialist view). Principled pacifism holds that violence of any form is an inappropriate response to conflict, and is morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and inter-personal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists in general reject theories of Just War. Organizations[edit] United Nations[edit] Main article: United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achieving world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. See also: List of United Nations peacekeeping missions UN peacekeeping missions. Dark blue regions indicate current missions, while light blue regions represent former missions. The UN, after approval by the Security Council, sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. The forces, also called the "Blue Helmets", who enforce UN accords are awarded United Nations Medals, which are considered international decorations instead of military decorations. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. Nobel Peace Prize[edit] Main article: Nobel Peace Prize Henry Dunant was awarded the first-ever Nobel Peace Prize for his role in founding the International Red Cross. The highest honor awarded to peace maker is the Nobel Prize in Peace, awarded since 1901 by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. It is awarded annually to internationally notable persons following the prize's creation in the will of Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who “ ...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.[3] ” Rhodes Scholarships and other fellowships[edit] In creating the Rhodes Scholarships for outstanding students from the United States, Germany and much of the British Empire, Cecil Rhodes wrote in 1901 that 'the object is that an understanding between the three great powers will render war impossible and educational relations make the strongest tie'.[4] This peace purpose of the Rhodes Scholarships was very prominent in the first half of the 20th century, and has become prominent again under Warden of the Rhodes House Donald Markwell.[5] This vision greatly influenced Senator J. William Fulbright in the goal of the Fulbright fellowships to promote international understanding and peace, and has guided many other international fellowship programs.[6] International Peace Belt[edit] Main article: International Peace Belt The International Peace Belt, created by artist Wendy Black Nasta, is a living symbol of the peaceful unity of all nations. Gandhi Peace Prize[edit] Main article: Gandhi Peace Prize The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded annually by the Government of India. It is launched as a tribute to the ideals espoused by Gandhi in 1995 on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of his birth. This is an annual award given to individuals and institutions for their contributions towards social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. The award carries Rs. 10 million in cash, convertible in any currency in the world, a plaque and a citation. It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, creed or ____. Paul Bartlett Ré Peace Prize[edit] Main article: Paul Bartlett Ré Peace Prize The Paul Bartlett Ré Peace Prize, named after the artist Paul Ré, is awarded bi-annually by the University of New Mexico (UNM). Student Peace Prize[edit] Main article: Student Peace Prize The Student Peace Prize is awarded biennially to a student or a student organization that has made a significant contribution to promoting peace and human rights. Other[edit] See also: Peace museums A peace museum is a museum that documents historical peace initiatives. Many peace museums also provide advocacy programs for nonviolent conflict resolution. This may include conflicts at the personal, regional or international level. Smaller institutions: Randolph Bourne Institute The McGill Middle East Program of Civil Society and Peace Building International Festival of Peace Poetry Monuments[edit] The following are monuments to peace: Name Location Organization Meaning Image Japanese Peace Bell New York City, NY, USA United Nations World peace Japanese Peace Bell of United Nations.JPG Fountain of Time Chicago, IL, USA Chicago Park District 100 years of peace between the USA and UK Fountain of Time front1.jpg Confederate Memorial[7] Arlington, Va, USA Arlington National Cemetery Southern States choosing peace over war Confederate Memorial Arlington Cemetery LOC13525v.jpg International Peace Garden North Dakota, Manitoba non-profit organization Peace between the US and Canada, World peace 2009-0521-CDNtrip003-PeaceGarden.jpg Peace Arch border between US and Canada, near Surrey, British Columbia. non-profit organization Built to honor the first 100 years of peace between Great Britain and the United States resulting from the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. Peace Arch.JPG Statue of Europe Brussels European Commission Unity in Peace in Europe Statue of Europe-(Unity-in-Peace).jpg Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park Alberta, Montana non-profit organization World Peace GlacierNP L7 20010701.jpg The Peace Dome Windyville, MO, USA not-for-profit organization Many minds working together toward a common ideal to create real and lasting transformation of consciousness on planet Earth. A place for people to come together to learn how to live peaceably.[8] Theories[edit] [icon] This section requires expansion. (April 2008) Many different theories of "peace" exist in the world of peace studies, which involves the study of conflict transformation, disarmament, and cessation of violence.[9] The definition of "peace" can vary with religion, culture, or subject of study. One definition is that peace is a state of balance and understanding in yourself and between others, where respect is gained by the acceptance of differences, tolerance persists, conflicts are resolved through dialog, people's rights are respected and their voices are heard, and everyone is at their highest point of serenity without social tension.[citation needed] Game theory[edit] Main article: Peace war game The Peace War Game is a game theory approach to peace and conflict studies. An iterated game originally played in academic groups and by computer simulation for years to study possible strategies of cooperation and aggression.[10] As peace makers became richer over time, it became clear that making war had greater costs than initially anticipated. The only strategy that acquired wealth more rapidly was a "Genghis Khan", a constant aggressor making war continually to gain resources. This led to the development of the "provokable nice guy" strategy, a peace-maker until attacked, improved upon merely to win by occasional forgiveness even when attacked. Multiple players continue to gain wealth cooperating with each other while bleeding the constant aggressor. Such actions led in essence to the development of the Hanseatic League for trade and mutual defense following centuries of Viking depredation.[11] Democratic peace theory[edit] Main article: Democratic peace theory The democratic peace theory holds that democracies will never go to war with one another. Theory of 'active peace'[edit] Borrowing from the teachings of Norwegian theorist Johan Galtung, one of the pioneers of the field of Peace Research, on 'Positive Peace',[12] and on the writings of Maine Quaker Gray Cox, a consortium of theorists, activists, and practitioners in the experimental John Woolman College initiative have arrived at a theory of "active peace". This theory posits in part that peace is part of a triad, which also includes justice and wholeness (or well-being), an interpretation consonant with scriptural scholarly interpretations of the meaning of the early Hebrew word shalom. Furthermore, the consortium have integrated Galtung's teaching of the meanings of the terms peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding, to also fit into a triadic and interdependent formulation or structure. Vermont Quaker John V. Wilmerding posits five stages of growth applicable to individuals, communities, and societies, whereby one transcends first the 'surface' awareness that most people have of these kinds of issues, emerging successively into acquiescence, pacifism, passive resistance, active resistance, and finally into active peace, dedicating themselves to peacemaking, peacekeeping, and/or peace building.[13] Many peaces[edit] Following Wolfgang Dietrich, Wolfgang Sützl[14] and the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies, some peace thinkers have abandoned any single and all-encompassing definition of peace. Rather, they promote the idea of many peaces. They argue that since no singular, correct definition of peace can exist, peace should be perceived as a plurality. This post-modern understanding of peace(s) was based on the philosophy of Jean Francois Lyotard. It served as a fundament for the more recent concept of trans-rational peace(s) and elicitive conflict transformation. Trans-rational peaces[edit] In 2008 Wolfgang Dietrich enlarged his earlier approach of the many peaces to the so-called five families of peace interpretations: the energetic, moral, modern, post-modern and trans-rational approach.[15] Trans-rationality unites the rational and mechanistic understanding of modern peace in a relational and culture-based manner with spiritual narratives and energetic interpretations.[16] The systemic understanding of trans-rational peaces advocates a client-centred method of conflict transformation, the so-called elicitive approach.[17] Peace and conflict studies[edit] Detail from Peace and Prosperity (1896), Elihu Vedder, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. Main article: Peace and conflict studies Peace and conflict studies is an academic field which identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours, as well as the structural mechanisms attending violent and non violent social conflicts. This is to better understand the processes leading to a more desirable human condition.[18] One variation, Peace studies (irenology), is an interdisciplinary effort aiming at the prevention, de-escalation, and solution of conflicts. This contrasts with war studies (polemology), directed at the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts. Disciplines involved may include political science, geography, economics, psychology, sociology, international relations, history, anthropology, religious studies, and gender studies, as well as a variety of others. Measuring and ranking peace[edit] Question book-new.svg This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2013) Although peace is widely perceived as something intangible, various organizations have been making efforts to quantify and measure it. The Global Peace Index produced by the Institute for Economics and Peace is a known effort to evaluate peacefulness in countries based on 22 indicators of the presence/absence of violence.[19] The last edition of the Index ranks 162 countries on their internal and external levels of peace. According to the 2013 Global Peace Index, Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world while Afghanistan is the least peaceful one.[20] The Failed State Index created by the Fund for Peace focuses on risk for instability or violence in 177 nations. This index measures how fragile a state is by 12 indicators and subindicators that evaluate aspects of politics, social economy, and military facets in countries. The 2012 Failed State Index reports that the most fragile nation is Somalia, and the least fragile one is Finland. University of Maryland publishes the Peace and Conflict Instability Ledger in order to measure peace. It grades 163 countries with 5 indicators, and pays the most attention to risk of political instability or armed conflict over a three-year period. The most recent ledger shows that the most peaceful country is Slovenia on the contrary Afghanistan is the most conflicted nation. Besides indicated above reports from the Institute for Economics and Peace, Fund for Peace, and University of Maryland, other organizations like the Economist Intelligence Unit and George Mason University release indexes that rank countries in terms of peacefulness.
#125485538Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:21 AM GMT

A monorail is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole support and its guideway. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles traveling on such a beam or track. The term originates from joining mono (one) and rail (rail), from as early as 1897,[1] possibly from German engineer Eugen Langen who called an elevated railway system with wagons suspended the Eugen Langen One-railed Suspension Tramway (Einschieniges Hängebahnsystem Eugen Langen). The transportation system is often referred to as a railway.[2] Colloquially, the term "monorail" is often used to describe any form of elevated rail or people mover.[3] More accurately, the term refers to the style of track,[note 1] not its elevation. Contents [hide] 1 Differentiation from other transport systems 1.1 Similarities 1.2 Differences 1.3 Maglev 2 History 2.1 Early years 2.2 1900s–1950s 2.3 1950s–1980s 2.4 Perceptions of monorail as public transport 2.5 Recent history 3 Types and technical aspects 3.1 Power 3.2 Magnetic levitation 3.3 Switching 3.4 Grades 4 Etymology 5 Monorail systems 5.1 Records 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links Differentiation from other transport systems[edit] Monorail systems have found shared applications in the transportation market in airport transfer and some medium capacity metro systems. To differentiate monorail systems from other transport modes, the Monorail Society further clarifies the definition of a monorail such that the beam in a monorail system is narrower than the vehicle.[4] Similarities[edit] Monorails are often but not exclusively elevated, sometimes leading to confusion with other elevated systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, Vancouver SkyTrain and the JFK AirTrain; none of these three are monorails by definition since they run on conventional steel dual rails (see: What is a Monorail?). Monorail vehicles are often at first glance similar to other light rail vehicles, and can be both manned and unmanned. Monorail vehicles can also be found in singular rigid format, articulated single units, or as multiple units coupled into 'trains'. In common with other advanced rapid transit systems, some monorails are driven by linear induction motor. In common with many dual rail systems, the vehicle bodies are connected to the beam via bogies, allowing curves to be negotiated. Differences[edit] Unlike some trams and light rail systems, modern monorails are always partitioned from other traffic and pedestrians. Monorails are both guided and supported via interaction with the same single beam, in contrast to other guided systems such as rubber-tyred metros, such as the Sapporo Municipal Subway; or guided buses or trams, such as Translohr. Monorails also do not use pantographs. From the passengers' perspective, monorails have many advantages over trains, buses, and automobiles. Ten feet or more above the city streets, monorails avoid red lights, intersection turns, and traffic jams.[5] Surface level trains, buses, automobiles, and pedestrians can collide each one with the other, while monorails can collide only with other monorails. Thus monorail trains have much fewer opportunities for collision. Unlike subways (and surface level trains with underground tracks near city centers), monorail passengers enjoy sunlight and views. By watching for familiar landmarks, they can know better when to get off to reach their destinations.[6] Expensive and noisy ventilation systems are not necessary if the cars have traditional windows that can be opened by passengers. (This also eliminates the weight and bulk of ventilation systems.) Monorails are much quieter than diesel buses and trains. They obtain electricity from the track structure, eliminating costly and unsightly overhead power lines and poles. Compared to the elevated train systems of New York, Chicago, and elsewhere, the monotrack casts a narrow shadow.[7] See Chicago 'L' Maglev[edit] Under the Monorail Society beam width criterion, some but not all maglev systems are considered monorails, such as the Transrapid and Linimo. Maglevs differ from all other monorail systems in that they do not (normally) physically contact the beam. History[edit] Gyroscopically balanced monorail (1907) by Brennan and Scherl Main article: Monorail history Early years[edit] The first monorail was made in Russia in 1820 by Ivan Elmanov. Attempts at creating monorail alternatives to conventional railways have been made since the early part of the 19th century. The earliest patent was taken out by Henry Palmer in the UK in 1821, and the design was employed at Deptford Dockyard in South-East London, and a short line for moving stone from a quarry near Cheshunt, Hertfordshire to the River Lea. The Cheshunt line is notable as it was the world's first monorail to carry passengers, as well as the first railway line to be opened in Hertfordshire.[8][9] Around 1879 a "one-rail" system was proposed independently by Haddon and by Stringfellow, which used an inverted "/\" rail. The system was intended for military use, but was also seen to have civilian use as a "cheap railway." [10] Early designs centred on use of a double-flanged single metal rail alternative to the double rail of conventional railways. Wheels on this rail would both guide and support the monorail car. A surviving suspended version is the Wuppertal monorail. Into the 1900s, Gyro monorails, with cars gyroscopically balanced on top of a single rail, were tested, but never developed beyond the prototype stage. The Ewing System, used in the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in Punjab, India, relies on a hybrid model with a load-bearing single rail and an external wheel for balance. One of the first systems put into practical use was that of French engineer Charles Lartigue, who built a monorail line between Ballybunion and Listowel in Ireland, which was opened in 1888 and closed in 1924 (due to damage from Ireland's Civil War). The Lartigue system uses a load-bearing single rail and two lower, external rails for balance, the three carried on triangular supports. Possibly the first monorail locomotive was a 0-3-0 steam locomotive. 1900s–1950s[edit] A highspeed monorail using the Lartigue system was proposed in 1901 between Liverpool and Manchester.[11] In 1910, the Brennan gyroscopic monorail was considered for use to a coal mine in Alaska.[12] The first half of the 20th century saw many further proposed designs, that either never left the drawing board or remained as short lived prototypes. One of the first monorail systems planned in the United States was in New York City in the early 1930s. But the monorail was scrubbed instead for an elevated train system.[13] 1950s–1980s[edit] Iron railway style Lockheed monorail (Odakyū Mukōgaoka-Yūen Monorail, Kawasaki, Japan, 1966–2001) In the later half of the 20th century, monorail designs had settled on using larger beam or girder based track, with vehicles supported by one set of wheels and guided by another. In the 1950s, a 40% scale prototype of a system designed for speed of 200 mph on straight stretches and 90 mph on curves was built in Germany.[14] There were designs featuring vehicles supported, suspended or cantilevered from the beams. In the 1950s the ALWEG straddle design emerged, followed by an updated suspended type, the SAFEGE system. Versions of ALWEG's technology are currently used by both of the two largest monorail manufacturers Hitachi Monorail and Bombardier. In 1956, the first monorail to operate in the US began test operations in Houston, Texas.[15] Later during this period, major monorails were installed, including at Disneyland in California,[16] Walt Disney World in Florida; Seattle, and Japan. Monorail systems also were promoted as futuristic technology with exhibition installations and amusement park purchases, as seen by the number of legacy systems in use today. However, monorails gained little foothold compared to conventional transport systems. Niche private enterprise uses for monorails emerged, with the emergence of air travel and shopping malls, with many shuttle type systems being built. Perceptions of monorail as public transport[edit] The Las Vegas Monorail pulling into the Las Vegas Convention Center Station From 1950 to 1980 the monorail concept may have suffered, as with all public transport systems, from competition with the automobile. Monorails in particular may have suffered from the reluctance of public transit authorities to invest in the perceived high cost of un-proven monorails when faced with cheaper mature alternatives. There were also many competing monorail technologies, splitting their case further. This high cost perception was challenged most-notably in 1963, when the ALWEG consortium proposed to finance the construction of a major monorail system in Los Angeles, in return for the right of operation. This was turned down by the city authorities in favour of no system at all, and the later subway system has faced criticism as it has yet to reach the scale of the proposed monorail. Several monorails initially conceived as transport systems survive today on revenues generated from tourism usage, benefiting from the unique views offered from the largely elevated monorail installations. Recent history[edit] Monorail in the Europa-Park in Rust, Germany From the 1980s onwards, with the rise of traffic congestion and urbanization, monorails have experienced a resurgence in interest for mass transit usage, notable from the early use by Japan and now Malaysia. Tokyo Monorail, the world's busiest monorail line, averages 127,000 passengers per day and has served over 1.5 billion passengers since 1964.[17] Monorails have also seen continuing use in niche shuttle markets, as well as amusement parks. Modern mass transit monorail systems have settled on developments of the ALWEG beam and tyre approach, with only two suspended types in large use. Monorail configurations have also been adopted by maglev trains. The Chongqing Rail Transit in China has adopted a unique form of an ALWEG-based design such that the design of its monorail rolling stock is much wider than most other monorails so as to have capacities comparable to that of heavy rail systems. This is because the city of Chongqing is criss-crossed by numerous hills, mountains and rivers, therefore tunneling underground is not feasible except in some cases (Line 1 and future Line 6) due to the extreme depth involved. India is developing Monorail Systems in several cities for mass rapid transit with Mumbai Monorail being the first one.[18] Types and technical aspects[edit] The Wuppertal Schwebebahn, the world's first electric powered suspended monorail Modern monorails depend on a large solid beam as the vehicles' running surface. There are a number of competing designs divided into two broad classes, straddle-beam and suspended monorails. The most common type of monorail in use today is the straddle-beam monorail, in which the train straddles a steel or reinforced concrete beam in the range of 2 to 3 feet (0.61 to 0.91 m) wide. A rubber-tired carriage contacts the beam on the top and both sides for traction and to stabilize the vehicle. The straddle-beam style was popularized by the German company ALWEG. The French company SAFEGE offers a monorail system in which the train cars are suspended beneath the wheel carriage. In this design the carriage wheels ride inside the single beam. The Chiba Urban Monorail is currently the world's largest suspended monorail network. There is also a historical type of suspension monorail developed by German inventors Nicolaus Otto and Eugen Langen in the 1880s. It was built in the twin cities of Barmen and Elberfeld in Wupper Valley, Germany, opened in 1901, and is still in operation. Power[edit] Almost all modern monorails are powered by electric motors fed by dual third rails, contact wires or electrified channels attached to or enclosed in their guidance beams. However, diesel-powered monorail systems also exist.[19] Historically, some systems, such as the Lartigue Monorail, used steam locomotives. Magnetic levitation[edit] Transrapid maglev on monorail track Magnetic levitation train (maglev) systems by the German Transrapid were built as straddle-type monorails, as they are highly stable and allow rapid deceleration from great speed. When in full-speed operation maglev trains hover over the track and are thus not in physical contact with it. The maglev is the fastest train of any type, the experimental SCMaglev having recorded a speed of 581 km/h (361 mph). The commercial Shanghai Maglev Train has run at 501 km/h (311 mph). However, the guideway system is so wide that it can be argued it is not legitimate to call it a monorail.[20][21] There are also slower maglev monorails intended for urban transport, such as Japan's Linimo (2003). Switching[edit] Switches at storage facility of Osaka Monorail. Some early monorail systems (notably the suspended monorail of Wuppertal (Germany), dating from 1901 and still in operation) have a design that makes it difficult to switch from one line to another. Some other monorail systems avoid switching as much as possible, by operating in a continuous loop or between two fixed stations, as in Seattle, Washington.[citation needed] Current operating monorails are capable of more efficient switching than in the past. In the case of suspended monorails, switching may be accomplished by moving flanges inside the beamway to shift trains to one line or another.[citation needed] The Sydney Monorail in Sydney avoided switching by operating in a single loop. The high capacity Tokyo Monorail. Straddle-beam monorails require that the beam structure itself be moved to accomplish switching, which originally was an almost prohibitively ponderous procedure. Now, however, the most common way of achieving this is to place a moving apparatus on top of a sturdy platform capable of bearing the weight of vehicles, beams and its own mechanism. Multiple-segmented beams move into place on rollers to smoothly align one beam with another to send the train in its desired direction, with the design originally developed by ALWEG capable of completing a switch in 12 seconds.[22] Some of these beam turnouts are quite elaborate, capable of switching between several beams or even simulating a railroad double-crossover.[citation needed] In cases where it must be possible to move a monorail train from one beam to any of a number of other beams, as in storage or repair shops, a traveling beam not unlike a railroad transfer table may be employed. A single beam, at least long enough to carry a single monorail vehicle, is aligned at an entry beam to be mounted by the monorail cars. The entire beam then rolls with the vehicle to align with the desired storage beam.[citation needed] Because of switching difficulties it is unlikely that there will ever be extensive monorail networks[23] Grades[edit] Rubber-tired monorails are typically designed to cope with 6% grade.[24] However, rubber-tired conventional light rail or metro lines can cope with similar or even greater grades - for example, the Lausanne Metro has grades of up to 12% and the Montreal Metro up to 6.5%,[25] while VAL systems can handle 7% grades.[26] The Mud Island suspended monorail, in Memphis, Tennessee (2005) Etymology[edit] 'Mono' is the Greek numeral prefix for one. 'Rail' indicates the type of track structure utilized.[27] [icon] This section requires expansion. (November 2010) Monorail systems[edit] Main article: List of monorail systems Records[edit] Busiest monorail line: Line 3, Chongqing Rail Transit, 500,000 passengers per day (2013 daily average)[28] Largest monorail system: Chongqing Rail Transit (Line 2 & 3), 72.0 km (44.7 mi) Longest maglev monorail line: Shanghai Maglev Train, 30.5 km (19.0 mi) Longest straddle-beam monorail line: Line 3, Chongqing Rail Transit, 55.5 km (34.5 mi)[29] Largest suspended monorail system: Chiba Urban Monorail, 15.2 km (9.4 mi) Oldest monorail line still in service: Schwebebahn Wuppertal, 1901 See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monorail. 3D Express Coach Bennie Railplane Hotchkiss Bicycle Railroad Monorail plan for the Los Angeles River, California SkyTran Slope car Transrapid Notes[edit] Jump up ^ The term "track" is used here for simplicity. Technically the monorail sits on or is suspended from a guideway containing a singular structure. There is an additional generally accepted rule that the support for the car be narrower than the car."Monorail Society, What is a monorail?". Monorails.org. Retrieved 2010-09-11. References[edit] Jump up ^ "Etymology Online entry for monorail". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "Dictionary.com definitions of monorail". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "Quite often, some of our friends in the press and public make the assumption that any elevated rail or peoplemover is a monorail.". Monorails.org. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "Monorail Society, What is a monorail?". Monorails.org. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ Ryan, Phillip Monorails (All Aboard!)(2010) Jump up ^ Schafer, Mike American Passenger Train (2001) Jump up ^ Dorin, Patrick C. American Passenger Trains: WWII to Amtrak(2009) Jump up ^ Finchley Society (1997-06-26). "Finchley Society Annual General Meeting Minutes". Retrieved 2009-04-03. Jump up ^ Today in Science History. "June 25 - Today in Science History". Retrieved 2009-04-03. Jump up ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Newspapers.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Newspapers.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Newspapers.nla.gov.au. 1910-09-05. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "America's First Monorail Line Planned For New York." Popular Mechanics, November 1930, p. 71. Jump up ^ "German's Develop Fast Monorail System For High Speed Travel" Popular Mechanics, January 1953, p. 127. Jump up ^ "First U.S. Monorail Has Trial Run." Popular Mechanics, June 1956, p. 77. Jump up ^ "Disneyland Adds Submarine and Monorail". Popular Mechanics. July 1959. Retrieved 21 December 2010. Jump up ^ "1.5 billionth rides monorail to Haneda". Japan Times. 2007-01-24. Retrieved 2007-01-24. Jump up ^ "India's first Monorail Service inaugurated in Mumbai". Biharprabha News. Retrieved 1 February 2014. Jump up ^ "Metrail Test Track Photo Essay - page one of three". Monorails.org. 2002-10-18. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ Svensson, Einar. "Definition and Description of Monorail". Retrieved 16 August 2012. Jump up ^ society, monorail. "definition of monorail". monorail society. Retrieved 16 August 2012. Jump up ^ "The Switch Myth". Retrieved 2007-01-15. Jump up ^ What's wrong with monorails Jump up ^ "Steeper Grade, Smaller Curve Radius". Hitachi Rail. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/features/metro/story.html?id=c84a8361-0981-403c-b6df-8ce82fc71db2 Jump up ^ "Is there people-mover in your future?". Railway Age. 1998. Jump up ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Newspapers.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-09-11. Jump up ^ "明年轨道3号线增开8辆编组列车 动力将提升1/3". Jump up ^ http://www.cqmetro.cn/wwwroot_release/crtweb/ztbd/shx/index.shtml
#125485618Wednesday, February 12, 2014 3:22 AM GMT

You did it wrong
#125504298Wednesday, February 12, 2014 1:36 PM GMT

#125506000Wednesday, February 12, 2014 2:47 PM GMT

[ Content Deleted ]
#127364921Wednesday, March 05, 2014 10:38 PM GMT

[ Content Deleted ]
#129244418Saturday, March 29, 2014 5:04 AM GMT

bump Iᴛ ᴀɪɴᴛ ᴇᴀsʏ, ʙᴇɪɴɢ Cʜᴇᴇsᴇʏ.
#129244951Saturday, March 29, 2014 5:13 AM GMT

#129244974Saturday, March 29, 2014 5:14 AM GMT

pure gold “Dᴏɴ’ᴛ ᴄᴀʟʟ ғᴏʀ ᴀ ғᴀɪʀ ᴄᴀᴛᴄʜ! I ᴡᴀɴɴᴀ sᴇᴇ ᴀ ɢᴜʏ ᴡʜᴏ’s ɢᴏᴛ ᴛʜᴇ ɴᴜᴛs ᴛᴏ ʀᴇᴛᴜʀɴ ᴛʜᴇ ʙᴀʟʟ!”
#137278389Tuesday, June 17, 2014 7:10 PM GMT

LMAO Iᴛ ᴀɪɴᴛ ᴇᴀsʏ, ʙᴇɪɴɢ Cʜᴇᴇsᴇʏ.
#137282993Tuesday, June 17, 2014 7:56 PM GMT

That's not ok here. That's not respectful. #Stopthebullying2014 #startthebulllying2014 "Being a Mets fan is like lending someone a lot of money and you just know that you'll never get paid back." - John Oliver
#141246598Wednesday, July 23, 2014 5:19 AM GMT

bump "Being a Mets fan is like lending someone a lot of money and you just know that you'll never get paid back." - John Oliver
#141246997Wednesday, July 23, 2014 5:23 AM GMT

LOL ᗩᘉᓰᗰᗩ☂ᕮↁᗪᗩᘉᘉϒ〇
#141247103Wednesday, July 23, 2014 5:24 AM GMT

what did he do anyway "Never wrestle with pigs. You both get dirty and the pig likes it."
#141248034Wednesday, July 23, 2014 5:35 AM GMT

O old thread, marens gone a wall
#149997890Tuesday, November 18, 2014 12:21 PM GMT

#149997950Tuesday, November 18, 2014 12:24 PM GMT

That's not ok here. That's not respectful. #Stopthebullying2014 #startthebulllying2014
#150009542Tuesday, November 18, 2014 8:04 PM GMT

i kinda like cheesy even doe i only seen him for a month on here XD
#150009830Tuesday, November 18, 2014 8:11 PM GMT

That's not ok here. That's not respectful. #Stopthebullying2014 #startthebulllying2014 "Give a man a fire and he's warm for a day. Set fire to the man and he's warm for the rest of his life." - Terry Pratchett ʕ •ᴥ•ʔ